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Tumor Markers

Posted on July 4, 2014 | 5 Comments on Tumor Markers
  • Tumor markers are protein substances found in the blood or body fluids
  • Tumor markers are derived from the tumor itself, and include the following:

a. Oncofetal antigents – normally present in fetal tissue; may indicate an anaplastic process in tumor cells; Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) are examples of oncofetal antigens.

b. Hormones are present in large quantities in the human body. However, high levels of hormones may indicate a hormone-secreting malignancy. Hormones that may be utilized as tumor markers include anti diuretic hormone (ADH), calcitonin, catecholamines, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), and parathyroid homone (PTH)

c. Isoenzymes are normally present in a particular tissue and may be released into the bloodstream if the tissue is experiencing rapid and excessive growth as a result of a tumor. Examples include neuron specific enolase (NSE) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP)

d. Tissue-specific proteins identify the type of tissue affected by malignancy. An example of a tissue specific protein is the prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) utilized to identify prostate cancer.

Host-response tumor markers include the following
a. C-reactive protein
b. interleukin-2
c. lactic dehydrogenase
d. serun ferritin
e. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
American Cancer Society’s seven Warning Signs of Cancer (uses the Acronym CAUTION)

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  1. 12/01/30

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