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Nursing Reviewer Archive

What is Ancylostomiasis

March 30, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Ancylostomiasis is the condition of infection by Ancylostoma hookworms

AKA: hookworm disease

Causative Agent: Necator americanus; Ancylostoma duodenale and A. ceylanicum

  • Bloodletting activity of the nematode leads to iron dificiency and hypochromic, microcytic anemia, the major cause of disability

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What is Myasthenia Gravis?

March 26, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Myasthenia Gravis is a chronic disease in which there is molecular weakness due to failure of the transmission of the nerve impulses at the myoneural junction.

Etiology: unknown. It is suggested there may be deficiency of effective acetylcholine or a defect in the motor endplate, which reduces its ability to respond.
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What is Paragonimiasis?

March 16, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Important Information

  • The lungs are the most frequently involved; mistaken for TB or chest x-ray
  • May also affect the CNS, subcutaneous tissues, intestinal wall, lymph nodes and genitourinary tract

AKA: Lung fluke disease
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Important Information About Measles

March 14, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 2

Measles is an extremely contagious exanthematous disease of acute onset

  • Essentially a disease of childhood
  • Signs & symptoms are referable to the upper respiratory passages
  • Is endemic and may occur at any time of the year
  • Breastfed babies of mother who have measles prossess a relative immunity for the first 3 months of life
  • The greatest incidence occurs during 3 years of age
  • Second attacks are not impossible
  • The most common complication is otitis media
  • The most serious complications are bronchopneumonia and encephalitis

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Nursing Management of the Common Side Effects of Chemotherapy

March 8, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

A. Bone marrow suppression leads to:

1. Decreased WBC count (immunosuppression).

  • Avoid crowds; people with infections and small children when WBC count is low
  • Consume a low-bacteria diet. Avoid overcooked meat and raw fruits and vegetables

2. Decreased platelet count (thrombocytopenia)

  • When shaving use ellectirc razon only
  • Avoid contact sports and other activities that may cause trauma
  • If trauma does occur, apply ice to the area and seek medical assistance
  • Avoid dental work or other invasive procedures
  • Avoid aspirin and aspirtin-containing products

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What is Schistosomiasis?

February 26, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Schistosomiasis affects mostly farmers and their families in the rural area. Endemic in 10 regions, 24 provinces, 183 municipalities and 1,212 barangays. High prevalence in Region 5 (Bicol), Region 8 (Samar and Leyte) and Region 11 (Davao).

AKA: bilhariasis; snail fever

Causative agent: Schistosoma mansoni; S. haematobium. S. Japonicum (blood fluke), endemic in the Philippines, is transmitted by a tiny snail Oncomelania quadrasi.

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Nursing Care of CVA Patients

January 13, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 3

Cerebrovascular Diseases (CVA) are disease of blood vessels in the brain. This includes Cerebral Arteriosclerosis, Cerebral Aneurysm, Cerebral Hemorrhage and Cerebral Embolism

a. Emergency care consists of turning the patient carefully on his side (determine by the puffiness of the check on his side) and elevating the head without tilting the neck forward; clothing should be kep, room shyould be kep quiet, and client should be moved as little as possible and protected from chilling. » Continue Reading

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Nursing Management of a Client Experiencing Alopecia (Hair Loss)

December 21, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Chemotherapy involves the administration of cytotoxic medications and chemicals to promote death of tumor cells.  The intravenous route is the most preferred method for administering chemotherapeutic agents, but they many also be administered by oral, intrathecal, topical, intra-arterial, intracavity, and intravesical routes.

  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may cause hair loss.  The hair loss is temporary, hair will grow back, usually beginning about a month after completion of the chemotherapy.  The client should know that the texture and color of the new hair growth may be different.  Hair loss during radiation to the head may be permanent. » Continue Reading

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Nursing Care of the Client in Traction

December 6, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

In order for traction to be effective, the client must lie on his or her back.  Turning to side or sitting up changes body alignment, and the pull (traction) is lost or become less effective.

The nurse must be certain that the weights are hanged freely. The rope should have no knots. It should be long enough so that it will not break if more weights are added. » Continue Reading

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Extent of Burn Injury

November 26, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 1

Rule of Nine

  • useful for the immediate appraisal of the burned area. This is a rapid and popular method for estimating percent of TBSA. This rule which was first devised by Pulanski and Tennison, divides the body surface into areas representing percent or multiples of 9 percent.

Head and Neck 9 percent
Anterior trunk 18 percent
Posterior trunk 18 percent
Perineum 1 percent
Each lower extremity 18 percent
Each upper extremity 9 percent
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Diseases Affecting the Respiratory System – Diptheria

November 17, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Diptheria is  an acute contagious disease characterized by a generalized systematic toxemia emanating from a localized inflammatory focus. Infants born of immunie mothers remain immune for the first 6 months of life.  One attack does not necessarily lifelong immunity

Causative agent: Corynebacterium diphtheriae, also called Klebs-Loffler bacillus

  • Very resistant to oridinary conditions of environment and disinfectants
  • Readily killed by boiling and will die in 3 minutes
  • Its exotoxin produces the disease after it gets into the bloodstream

Incubation Period: 1-7 days » Continue Reading

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The Role of Communication in Psychiatric Nursing

November 15, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Effective communication is key to psychiatric nursing. Communication involves both sending and receiving messages; It can be verbal or non-verbal

Variables that Influence Communication

  • Perception is the process of sensing, interpreting and understanding the world in which the person lives.
  • Values are concepts of what is/are desirable.
  • Culture is the body of socially transmited and acceptable attitudes and behaviors » Continue Reading

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Care of Neurosurgical Clients

November 6, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 1

Post-operative care for neurological clients having supratentorial and infratentorial procedures

Positioning
a.  Supratentorial: Semi-Fowler’s position is used because lwoering the head can cause venous congestion and bleeding.  Position flat only when client is in shock.  No Trendelenburg position, which would increase intracranial pressure.

b.  Commonalities: Keep off operative site; turn every 2hours; keep head on small pillow; mouth in dependent situation to drain secretions.

c.  Infratentorial: Position flat on eaerither side; keep off back because of impaired swallowing and gag reflexes; head may be gradually elevated on the third post-operative day. » Continue Reading

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Therapeutic Nurse-Patient Relationship

November 3, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

The therapeutic nurse-patient relationship is a mutual learning experience and a corrective emotional experience for the patient. The nurse uses personal atrributes and specific clinical techniques in working with the patient to bring about behavioral change.

Elements of the Therapeutic Relationship

  • A contract establishes time, place, purpose of meetings between the nurse and client, as well as conditions for termination. The nurse is defined as a professional helper and the client’s needs and problems are the focus of the interaction » Continue Reading

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Patient Classification System (PCS)

October 30, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 1

The PCS is a method of grouping patients according to the amount and complexity of their nursing care requirements.

It is a measurement tool used to articulate the nursing workload for a specific patient or group of patients over a specific period of time. » Continue Reading

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IV Fluid Composition

October 29, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Components of different IV Fluid

IV Fluid Na K Cl Lactate
D5LR 130 4 109 28
D50.3NaCl 51 51
D50.45NaCl 75 75
D50.9NaCl 154 154
D5NR 140 5 98 50
D5IMB 25 20 22 23
D5NM 40 13 40 16

Care of Clients in Acute Biologic Crisis

October 25, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Acute Biologic Crisis – Hemorrhage

  • refers to a large amount of blood loss from a vessel.  Irreparable brain damage is said to occur in 3 to 5 minutes after the oxygen supply has been interrupted » Continue Reading

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Roles and Functions of Psychiatric Nursing

October 22, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 2

Psychiatric Nursing
This field of nursing refers to an interpersonal process that promotes and maintains behaviors that conribute to integrated functioning. The patient may be an individual, family, group, organization or community.

It is a specialized area of nursing practice – one that is based on theories of human behavior as its science and the ‘therapeutic use of self’ as its art. » Continue Reading

Care of Clients with Cellular Aberrations: Evolution of Cancer Cells

October 20, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 1

Cancer refers to a disease whereby cells mutate into abnormal cells that proliferate abnormally.  Neoplasia refers to an abnormal cell growth or tumor.  A tumor is a mass of new tissue functioning independently and serving no useful purpose

  • Benign neoplasms are slow-growing, localized, and encapsulated non-malignant growths with well-defined borders.
  • Malignant neoplasms are aggressive growths that invade and destroy surrounding tissue and which can lead to death unless interventions are taken. » Continue Reading

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Care of Clients with Infections and Inflammatory Reactions : Leptospirosis

October 19, 2009 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Important Information:
– Increased incidence during the rainy season because of flood
– Sewer workers, farmers, miners and slaughterhouse workers are among those at risk
– Disease of a low-form animal

AKA:
– mud fever
– Weil’s Disease
– Swamp fever » Continue Reading

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