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Neoplasms of Nervous System Neurologic Tumors

August 14, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 2

Central Nervous System (CNS) Tumors
a. Intracranial Tumors – are potentially fatal; skull is rigid and has little room for content expansion; untreated brains tumors cause death by:

– Local destruction and brain tissue compression
– Progressively increasing ICP, causing herniation and death » Continue Reading

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Classification For Priority of Treatment

August 10, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Classification for priority of treatment would be based on how likely it is that the casualties will respond to the medical personnel and supplies that are immediately available

1.  Minimal Treatment – for patients who can be returned to active duty immediately

2.  Immediate Treatment – for patients whose life or limb will be saved by the available expedient procedures » Continue Reading

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Musculoskeletal Trauma

July 21, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Contusion – It is an injury to soft tissues produced by a blunt force, blow, kick or fall
Signs and Symptoms: ecchymosis, pain, swelling
Rx:  elevate feet; cold compress to diminish edema; apply pressure bandage to reduce sweling and edema; apply heat after 6 hours to promote absorption

Strain – it is injury to muscles or tendons caused by twist, pull, and/or tear.

Sprain – it is an injury to ligamentous structure surrounding a joint and is usually caused by swrenching or twisting.
» Continue Reading

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Common Health Problems Involving The Musculoskeletal System – Gout Arthritis

July 17, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Gout Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the joints.  Its onset is abrupt and usually involves the big toe.  It is a genetic defect of purine metabolism in which there is an elevated level or uric acide and crystallate deposits (tophi) in the joints.  It affects men aged 20-60 years.  Primarily, those who are over 40, the predisposition for gout is inherited.

Assessment: Joints are reddened and painful.  Tophi may appear. » Continue Reading

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The TNM Tumor System

July 6, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

The TNM Tumor System is utilized for classifying tumors.

T indicates the extent of the tumors

  • T0 indicates no evidence of tumor
  • Tis indicate tumor in situ.
  • T1, T2, T3, and T4 indicate progressive degrees of tumor size and involvement » Continue Reading

Tumor Markers

July 4, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 5

  • Tumor markers are protein substances found in the blood or body fluids
  • Tumor markers are derived from the tumor itself, and include the following:

a. Oncofetal antigents – normally present in fetal tissue; may indicate an anaplastic process in tumor cells; Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) are examples of oncofetal antigens. » Continue Reading

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Care of Clients with Infections and Inflammatory Reactions

July 2, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Chain of Infection

  • Describes the development of an infectious process
  • An interactive process involving an agent, host, and environment is required

The six essential links (elements) in the chain of infection
1.  Agent

  • an entry that is capable of causing disease
  • agent that cause disease may be as follows:

a. Bacteria

  • Simple, one-celled microbes with double-celled membranes that protect them from harm » Continue Reading

Care of Clients with Alterations in Cognitive-Perceptual Patterns: Clients with Visual Disorders

July 1, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Testing Vision

  • Snellen Chart – The numerator denotes the distance in feet at which the test is conducted (usually 20 feet) and the denominator, the distance at which the smallest letters read on the Snellen chart should be seen by an average normal eye.
  • Ophthalmoscope – Usually the pupils have to be dilated with a mydriatic solution.  Changes in the optic nerve head may indicate changes in ICP » Continue Reading

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Abnormal Body Temperature Alternations

June 23, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Hyperthermal (Hyperpyrexia) – body temperature increases to 41 degree Celsius (100 degree F) or above

a.  The temperature-regulatory center in hypothalamus can be disturbed

  • as a result of cerebral edema
  • following cerebrovascular disease
  • following intracranial surgery » Continue Reading


First Aid Interventions for Thermal Burns

June 20, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Objective: Stop the burning process.  The first thing to do is to smother the flames by:

  • Having the client lie in a horizontal position as this permits flames to burn up and away from the exposed parts of the body.  Standing should be discouraged because of the greater chance of flames being inhaled. » Continue Reading

General Nursing Care – PREVENTION

June 18, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Health Education
Educate the family and the client with respect to:
– Availability and importance of prophylactic immunization
– Manner in which infectious illness is spread and methods of avoiding the spread
– Importance of seeking medical advice for any sign of health problem » Continue Reading


Client Undergoing a Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)

June 15, 2014 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)  is used in the treatment of leukemia, usually in conjunction with radiation or chemotherapy.

  • Autologous BMT : The client is inifused with his own bone marrow harvested during remission of disease
  • Allogenic BMT:  The client is infused with donor bone marrow harvested from a healthy individual » Continue Reading

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How to get OHNAP Certificate

August 14, 2012 Category :Nursing Reviewer 9

The term OHNAP pertains to the Occupational Health Nurses Association of the Philippines. The OHNAP certificate is a certificate awarded to nurses who have successfully underwent occupational health training and are members of the OHNAP. OHNAP certificates are exclusively given to OHNAP members, who are apparently nurses who have finished the training course for occupation safety standards. OHNAP provides a Basic Occupational Safety & Health (BOSH) course that is duly accredited by the Bureau of Working Conditions of the Department of Labor. This training usually last for 6 days and upon completion, nurses are awarded the OHNAP certificate. Aside from BOSH, OHNAP also provides comprehensive clinical training in occupational health nursing.

» Continue Reading

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Cellular Aberrations

November 22, 2011 Category :Nursing Articles| Nursing Reviewer 0

The scientific term Cellular aberratioans is a result on a cell negatively, can be multi nuclearity, membrane bleeding, vocalization, gigantism and cellular deformation.  The cell cycle is separated up into split phases (S, G0.G1, and M) each point of modification from one stage to another is governed by various proteins which serve as either the brakes or the accelerators for the cell cycles.  These proteins are called chromosomes (DNA), and it is the mutation in the protein-specific DNA which creates either or no protein at all, over active protein, or the under active protein.  It creates disruptions to the cycle, or giving the body the imbalance cycle, which disturbs orderly cell growth and division.  And this can lead to cancer.

There are two ways to conclude if the cells can lead to cancers, one is that a sample cells from a fetus; amniocentesis and chorionic villus sample.  In amniocentesis involves analyzing the sample of the fluid all over the fetus in the womb of the soon expectant mothers’ abdomen, and into the fluid surrounding the fetus, 20 ml of amniotic fluid is removed from the mothers’ abdomen and the samples sent for an analysis and review.  And Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) second way for sampling cells, in this method the CVS analyses a sample of the placenta 11 weeks from pregnancy, a needle is inserted all the way to the mothers’ abdomen by the help of the ultrasound all the way through the developing placenta of unborn, by means of sipping a small sample of tissue to collect and is sent to the laboratory for further analysis of the sample tissue.  In this method early detection can be done if the cells of the tissues can eventually lead to cancer. The aberrations in the cell can lead to tumor formation if the cells posses certain genes that turn on and off cellular processes.  The normal cellular regulation keeps the process in balance.

Cancer is a sickness whereby cells alter into abnormal cells that reproduce abnormally.  Neoplasia refers to an abnormal cell growth or tumor.  A tumor is a mass of fresh tissue working separately and serving no useful purpose.  Tumors have two kinds the benign and the malignant, benign are slow growing localized and encapsulated non malignant growths with well-defined borders, while malignant are the hostile growth that attack and destroy surrounding tissue which can lead to death, unless it is intervened or treated early.  The augmentation of the tumors depends on the structure of new blood vessels.  In difference to hereditarily unstable tumor cells, the endothelial cells of tumor vessels are measured to be normal diploid that don’t need mutations.  Malignant cells have the capability to stimulate the enlargement of new genes capillaries from the main tissue to meet their needs for the nutrients and oxygen.

» Continue Reading

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NCLEX Review Centers in Manila

November 11, 2011 Category :All About Nursing| Nursing Review Centers| Nursing Reviewer 1

The key to working as a nurse in the US is passing the NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination). And the key to passing the NCLEX is have an intensive and thorough review in a reliable NCLEX review center. Hereunder is a list of NCLEX Review Centers in Manila with their respective addresses and contact numbers:

Unit 204-205-206 838 P. Campa St., Sampaloc, Manila
Tel. #s: 313-0847 / 784-1652

G/F Belvedere Tower, San Miguel Avenue, Ortigas Center, Pasig City

5140 Filmore St. Brgy. Palanan, Makati City 1235

2240 Chino Roces Avenue Makati City
+632 810-7196

158-D Fortune Promenade Building, West Avenue Quezon City
(02) 920-7304

Calixtro Review Center Matalino Rd. Quezon City

Unit 6-B 6th Floor MARC 2000 Tower Quirino corner Taft Avenues, Malate 1004 Manila
Tel. Nos.: 525-4469 & 407-3277

3/F Cmffi Building 815 R.Papastreet Sampaloc Manila
7357922; 7361500

» Continue Reading

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What are the Stages of Infections?

May 31, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 1

Incubation Stage
The incubation period is the time between entry of infectious agent in the host and the onset of symptoms. During this time, the infectious agent invades the tissue and multiplies to produce an infection. The client is typically infectious to others during the latter part of this stage. For example, the incubation period for varicella (chickenpox) is 2 to 3 weeks. the infected person is contagious from 5 days before any skin eruptions to no more than 6 days after the skin eruptions appear.

» Continue Reading

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What is Sequelae?

May 10, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Motor disturbances: Parkinsonian syndrome or paralysis agitans

  • Face is expressionless and mask-like
  • Constant, uncontrollable, rhythmic tremor or voluntary muscles
  • Speech is monotonous and jerky
  • Difficulty in initiating, controlling or arresting volutary movements
  • Propulsive gait, with forwrd or backward motion increasing almost to run
  • “Pill-rolling” tremor of the hands.

» Continue Reading

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What is German Measles?

April 27, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Important Information

  • An acute contagious disease
  • Essentially a mild childhood disease, the danger actually being congenital defects in the newborn if apregnant woman suffers from it or is exposed to someone with the disease:
    * microcephaly
    * congenital heart defect; cataract; deafness and mutism

AKA: Rubella; 3-day measles

» Continue Reading


Nursing Care of Head Injury

April 20, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Emergency Care

  • First consideration is to ensure a clear airway
  • Keep spine straight; patient is carefully turned to a lateral or semiprone position
  • Flexion or hypertension should be avoided in case there is a cervical fracture
  • Keep patient covered, quiet and undistrubed

» Continue Reading

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What is Pediculosis Capitis?

April 16, 2010 Category :Nursing Reviewer 0

Important Information:

  • Propagates in hairy regions of the body
  • Nits (louse eggs or “lisa”) cling tenaciously to the shaft to the hair
  • More commonly a disease of females and of children than adults

AKA: Head Lice
» Continue Reading