The term OHNAP pertains to the Occupational Health Nurses Association of the Philippines. The OHNAP certificate is a certificate awarded to nurses who have successfully underwent occupational health training and are members of the OHNAP. OHNAP certificates are exclusively given to OHNAP members, who are apparently nurses who have finished the training course for occupation safety standards. OHNAP provides a Basic Occupational Safety & Health (BOSH) course that is duly accredited by the Bureau of Working Conditions of the Department of Labor. This training usually last for 6 days and upon completion, nurses are awarded the OHNAP certificate. Aside from BOSH, OHNAP also provides comprehensive clinical training in occupational health nursing.
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The scientific term Cellular aberratioans is a result on a cell negatively, can be multi nuclearity, membrane bleeding, vocalization, gigantism and cellular deformation. The cell cycle is separated up into split phases (S, G0.G1, and M) each point of modification from one stage to another is governed by various proteins which serve as either the brakes or the accelerators for the cell cycles. These proteins are called chromosomes (DNA), and it is the mutation in the protein-specific DNA which creates either or no protein at all, over active protein, or the under active protein. It creates disruptions to the cycle, or giving the body the imbalance cycle, which disturbs orderly cell growth and division. And this can lead to cancer.
There are two ways to conclude if the cells can lead to cancers, one is that a sample cells from a fetus; amniocentesis and chorionic villus sample. In amniocentesis involves analyzing the sample of the fluid all over the fetus in the womb of the soon expectant mothers’ abdomen, and into the fluid surrounding the fetus, 20 ml of amniotic fluid is removed from the mothers’ abdomen and the samples sent for an analysis and review. And Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) second way for sampling cells, in this method the CVS analyses a sample of the placenta 11 weeks from pregnancy, a needle is inserted all the way to the mothers’ abdomen by the help of the ultrasound all the way through the developing placenta of unborn, by means of sipping a small sample of tissue to collect and is sent to the laboratory for further analysis of the sample tissue. In this method early detection can be done if the cells of the tissues can eventually lead to cancer. The aberrations in the cell can lead to tumor formation if the cells posses certain genes that turn on and off cellular processes. The normal cellular regulation keeps the process in balance.
Cancer is a sickness whereby cells alter into abnormal cells that reproduce abnormally. Neoplasia refers to an abnormal cell growth or tumor. A tumor is a mass of fresh tissue working separately and serving no useful purpose. Tumors have two kinds the benign and the malignant, benign are slow growing localized and encapsulated non malignant growths with well-defined borders, while malignant are the hostile growth that attack and destroy surrounding tissue which can lead to death, unless it is intervened or treated early. The augmentation of the tumors depends on the structure of new blood vessels. In difference to hereditarily unstable tumor cells, the endothelial cells of tumor vessels are measured to be normal diploid that don’t need mutations. Malignant cells have the capability to stimulate the enlargement of new genes capillaries from the main tissue to meet their needs for the nutrients and oxygen.
The key to working as a nurse in the US is passing the NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination). And the key to passing the NCLEX is have an intensive and thorough review in a reliable NCLEX review center. Hereunder is a list of NCLEX Review Centers in Manila with their respective addresses and contact numbers:
COMPREHENSIVE MEDICAL REVIEW CENTER
Unit 204-205-206 838 P. Campa St., Sampaloc, Manila
Tel. #s: 313-0847 / 784-1652
AMERIPHIL NURSING REVIEW CENTER
G/F Belvedere Tower, San Miguel Avenue, Ortigas Center, Pasig City
TEST TAKERS LOUNGE
5140 Filmore St. Brgy. Palanan, Makati City 1235
FORD LANGUAGE REVIEW CENTER
2240 Chino Roces Avenue Makati City
WEPRO ASIA INC.
158-D Fortune Promenade Building, West Avenue Quezon City
CALIXTRO REVIEW CENTER
Calixtro Review Center Matalino Rd. Quezon City
ACE CAREER REVIEW CENTER
Unit 6-B 6th Floor MARC 2000 Tower Quirino corner Taft Avenues, Malate 1004 Manila
Tel. Nos.: 525-4469 & 407-3277
GLOBAL NURSING SPECIALIST INC.
3/F Cmffi Building 815 R.Papastreet Sampaloc Manila
1. Give only drugs in liquid form; buccal or sublingual drugs and entric-coated or sustained acction medications should not be crushed and given via NGT; so also with whole or undissolved drugs
2. Dissolve soft, gelatin capsules, crushed tablets and poweders in warm water
3 Irrigate the tube with 50-150 ml of water before and after all medications are given
4. Syrups or medications with a ph of <4 should not be given.
Nephrotic Syndrome is a clinical disorder characterized by:
- Marked increase in protein in the urine (proteinuria);
- Decrease in albumin in the blood (hypoalbuminemia);
- Edema; and
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- Abdominal mass
- Abdominal pain especially in older children
- Late manifestations
- weight loss and anemia
- fever, a sign of tissue necrosis
- hematuria, means poor prognosis
The incubation period is the time between entry of infectious agent in the host and the onset of symptoms. During this time, the infectious agent invades the tissue and multiplies to produce an infection. The client is typically infectious to others during the latter part of this stage. For example, the incubation period for varicella (chickenpox) is 2 to 3 weeks. the infected person is contagious from 5 days before any skin eruptions to no more than 6 days after the skin eruptions appear.
Motor disturbances: Parkinsonian syndrome or paralysis agitans
- Face is expressionless and mask-like
- Constant, uncontrollable, rhythmic tremor or voluntary muscles
- Speech is monotonous and jerky
- Difficulty in initiating, controlling or arresting volutary movements
- Propulsive gait, with forwrd or backward motion increasing almost to run
- “Pill-rolling” tremor of the hands.
- An acute contagious disease
- Essentially a mild childhood disease, the danger actually being congenital defects in the newborn if apregnant woman suffers from it or is exposed to someone with the disease:
* congenital heart defect; cataract; deafness and mutism
AKA: Rubella; 3-day measles
AKA: “An-an“; athlete’s foot
Causative Agent: Microsporum and Trichophyton (rubrum, mentagrophytes)
Incubation Period: 4-10 days
Period of Commuicability: As long as lesions are present
Mode of Transmission: Direct or indirct contact with skin, contaminated clothing (towels, handkerchief, etc), floors, shower stalls, benches
Signs & Symptoms:
- Flat, spreading, ring-shaped lesions
- Reddish periphery, vesicular or pustular
- Maybe dry and scaly or moist and crusted
- First consideration is to ensure a clear airway
- Keep spine straight; patient is carefully turned to a lateral or semiprone position
- Flexion or hypertension should be avoided in case there is a cervical fracture
- Keep patient covered, quiet and undistrubed
Hypnotherapy is an altered state of consciousness whereby clients are helped to use their own mental associations, memories and life potential to achieve therapeutic goals
It is a technique used in helping clients discover the critical experiences in their past that have been responsible for their present distress
- The trance state is a naturally occurring phenomenon. It provides an opportunity fo r the therapist and client to make a maximum use of their responses and focus intently on mastering psychological and physical distress.
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- Propagates in hairy regions of the body
- Nits (louse eggs or “lisa”) cling tenaciously to the shaft to the hair
- More commonly a disease of females and of children than adults
AKA: Head Lice
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Aphasia (Dysphasia) is a general term used to describe organic disturbances in language resulting from cortical tissue damage rather than from defective innervation of the muscles used in speech or from mental deficiency.
a. Rehabilitation should be done 6 to 12 weeks immediately after a stroke which is the “optimum treatment period, ” but additional improvement can take place for 2 or more years after a stroke
Bell’s Palsy (facial paralysis) involves the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve) on one side, producing weakness or paralysis of the facial muscle.
Sign & Symptoms: feeling of numbness in the face, distortion of face from paralysis of facial muscle; speech difficulties, inability to eat on affected side; pain behind the ear or in the face.
- Roentgenogram (x-ray film) -It is used to determine injury to or tumor of the bones and soft tissues
- Bone Scan – A radionuclide such as 99Tc – disphosphonate is administered IV, and scan is done several hours later. This 99Tc disphosphonate is favored bacause scanning can tabke place within 1 to 3 hours after injection. A client may be given pain medication before scanning to make him or her more comfortable. Immediately before the scan, the client should void to eliminate the radioactive material from the kidney and the bladder.
Cause: the result of an abnormal displacement of iris against the angle fo the anterior chamber. It is a relatively rare disease. Dilation of the pupil is caused by darkness, excitement or a mydriatic drug, which may cuse blockage of the outflow mechanism of the eye with a narrowed peripheral angle of the anterior chamber
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Ancylostomiasis is the condition of infection by Ancylostoma hookworms
AKA: hookworm disease
Causative Agent: Necator americanus; Ancylostoma duodenale and A. ceylanicum
- Bloodletting activity of the nematode leads to iron dificiency and hypochromic, microcytic anemia, the major cause of disability
Multiple Sceloris (Disseminated Scelrosis) is degeneration, progressive disease characterized by demyelination of motor nerve fibers within the spinal cord and brain. Death is most often caused by intercurrent infection. Not contagious or inherited, although it appears more often among relatives
Etiology: unknown, autoimmun; viruses
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